ENDNOTES


1 Paulo Mauro. "Corruption: Causes, Consequences, and Agenda for Further Research". Finance & Development, March 1998, p. 2.
2 1997 World Development Report. World Bank, p. 103.
3 Jeremy Pope, ed. "National Integrity Systems. The TI Source Book". 2nd ed. Transparency International. Berlin, pp. 12-13.
4 Jeremy Pope, ed. "National Integrity Systems. The TI Source Book". 2nd ed. Transparency International. Berlin, pp. 12-13.
5 Cheryl Grey and Daniel Kaufmann. "Corruption & Development". Finance & Development. March 1998, p. 10.
6 Daniel Kaufmann. "The Missing Pillar of a Growth Strategy for Ukraine: Reforms for Private Sector Development". In Peter K. Cornelius et al., "Ukraine: Accelerating the Transition to Market". International Monetary Fund, 1997, p. 238.
7 Daniel Kaufmann. "Revisiting Anti-Corruption Strategies: Tilt Towards Incentive-Driven Approaches", in "Corruption and Integrity Improvement Initiatives in Developing Countries". UNDP/OECD, 1998, p. 75.
8 The Kyiv Post. September 25, 1997.
9 "Review of the Progress in Combating Corruption in Ukraine". Ukrainian Integrity Program, Ukrainian Legal Foundation, Kyiv, Aug. 1998, p. 4
10 "Review of the Progress in Combating Corruption in Ukraine". Ukrainian Integrity Program, Ukrainian Legal Foundation, Kyiv, Aug. 1998, p. 4
11 Volodymyr Polokhalo, ed. "The Political Analysis of Postcommunism. Understanding Postcommunist Ukraine", p. 163.
12 Juan Linz & Albert Stepan. "Problems of Democratic Transition & Consolidation". The Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore: 1996, p. 40.
13 Juan Linz & Albert Stepan. "Problems of Democratic Transition & Consolidation". The Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore: 1996, p. 41.
14 Juan Linz & Albert Stepan. "Problems of Democratic Transition & Consolidation". The Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore: 1996, p. 42.
15 Juan Linz & Albert Stepan. "Problems of Democratic Transition & Consolidation". The Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore: 1996, p. 44.
16 M. Steven Fish. "The Determinants of Economic Reform in the Postcommunist World", p. 53.
17 M. Steven Fish. "The Determinants of Economic Reform in the Postcommunist World", p. 60.
18 M. Steven Fish. "The Determinants of Economic Reform in the Postcommunist World", p. 60
19 Val Bunce. "The Place of Place in Transitions to Democracy", p. 17. Working Draft.
20 M. Steven Fish. "The Determinants of Economic Reform in the Postcommunist World", pg. 56
21 M. Steven Fish. "The Determinants of Economic Reform in the Postcommunist World", pg. 60.
22 Valerie Bunce. "Regional Differences in Democratization: The East Versus the South". Post-Soviet Affairs, 1998. Volume 14, no. 3, p. 192.
23 M. Steven Fish. "The Determinants of Economic Reform in the Postcommunist World", pg. 50.
24 M. Steven Fish. "The Determinants of Economic Reform in the Postcommunist World", pg. 62.
25 Juan Linz & Albert Stepan. "Problems of Democratic Transition & Consolidation". The Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore: 1996, p. 370
26 M. Steven Fish. "Democracy From Scratch. Opposition and Regime in the New Russian Revolution". Princeton University Press. Princeton: 1995, p. 215.
27 M. Steven Fish. "Democracy from Scratch. Opposition and Regime in the New Russian Revolution". Princeton University Press. Princeton: 1995, p. 216.
28 M. Steven Fish. "Democracy From Scratch. Opposition and Regime in the New Russian Revolution". Princeton University Press. Princeton: 1995, pp. 60-61.
2929 John Higely, Judith Kulberg & Jan Pakulski. "The Persistence of Postcommunist Elites". Journal of Democracy. Jan 96, Vol. 7, no. 1, p. 141.
30 Val Bunce. "The Place of Place in Transitions to Democracy", p. 17. Working Draft.
31 Val Bunce, p. 13, "The Place of Place in Transitions to Democracy", quoting Wasilewskii, 1995a, p. 117-118.
32 Juan Linz & Albert Stepan. "Problems of Democratic Transition & Consolidation". The Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore: 1996, p. 295.
33 Alexander Motyl and Bohdan Krawchenko. "Ukraine: From Empire to Statehood", in Ian Bremmer and Ray Taras, eds., "New States, New Politics. Building the Post-Soviet Nation". Cambridge University Press. Cambridge: 1997, p. 248.
34 Zenovia A. Sochor. "Political Culture and Foreign Policy. Elections in Ukraine 1994", in Vladimir Tismaneanu, ed., "Political Culture and Civil Society in Russia and the New States of Eurasia". M.E. Sharpe Publishers. London: 1997, p. 210.
35 Ilya Prizel, "Ukraine Between Proto-Democracy and 'Soft' Authoritarianism", in " Democratic Changes and Authoritarian Reactions in Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and Moldova", p. 334.
36 Ilya Prizel, "Ukraine Between Proto-Democracy and 'Soft' Authoritarianism", in " Democratic Changes and Authoritarian Reactions in Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and Moldova", p. 335.
37 Ilya Prizel, "Ukraine Between Proto-Democracy and 'Soft' Authoritarianism", in " Democratic Changes and Authoritarian Reactions in Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and Moldova", p. 339.
38 Ilya Prizel. "Ukraine Between Proto-Democracy and 'Soft' Authoritarianism", in " Democratic Changes and Authoritarian Reactions in Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and Moldova". Dawisha and Parrot, eds. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge: 1997, p. 345.
39 Ilya Prizel. "Ukraine Between Proto-Democracy and 'Soft' Authoritarianism", in " Democratic Changes and Authoritarian Reactions in Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and Moldova". Dawisha and Parrot, eds. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge: 1997, p. 338.
40 Alexander Motyl and Bohdan Krawchenko. "Ukraine: From Empire to Statehood", in Ian Bremmer and Ray Taras, eds., "New States, New Politics. Building the Post-Soviet Nation". Cambridge University Press. Cambridge: 1997, p. 248.
41 Alexander Motyl and Bohdan Krawchenko. "Ukraine: From Empire to Statehood", in Ian Bremmer and Ray Taras, eds., "New States, New Politics. Building the Post-Soviet Nation". Cambridge University Press. Cambridge: 1997, p. 248.
42 Alexander Motyl and Bohdan Krawchenko. "Ukraine: From Empire to Statehood", in Ian Bremmer and Ray Taras, eds., "New States, New Politics. Building the Post-Soviet Nation". Cambridge University Press. Cambridge: 1997, p. 249.
43 Alexander Motyl and Bohdan Krawchenko. "Ukraine: From Empire to Statehood", in Ian Bremmer and Ray Taras, eds., "New States, New Politics. Building the Post-Soviet Nation". Cambridge University Press. Cambridge: 1997, p. 247.
44 Ilya Prizel, "Ukraine Between Proto-Democracy and 'Soft' Authoritarianism", in "Democratic Changes and Authoritarian Reactions in Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and Moldova", p. 338.
45 Alexander Motyl and Bohdan Krawchenko. "Ukraine: From Empire to Statehood", in Ian Bremmer and Ray Taras, eds., "New States, New Politics. Building the Post-Soviet Nation". Cambridge University Press. Cambridge: 1997, p. 249.
46 Ilya Prizel, "Ukraine Between Proto-Democracy and 'Soft' Authoritarianism", in "Democratic Changes and Authoritarian Reactions in Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and Moldova", p. 338.
47 Ilya Prizel, "Ukraine Between Proto-Democracy and 'Soft' Authoritarianism", in "Democratic Changes and Authoritarian Reactions in Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and Moldova", p. 342.
48 Alexander Motyl and Bohdan Krawchenko. "Ukraine: From Empire to Statehood", in Ian Bremmer and Ray Taras, eds., "New States, New Politics. Building the Post-Soviet Nation". Cambridge University Press. Cambridge: 1997, p. 248.
49 Ilya Prizel, "Ukraine Between Proto-Democracy and 'Soft' Authoritarianism", in " Democratic Changes and Authoritarian Reactions in Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and Moldova". Dawisha and Parrot, eds. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge: 1997, p. 340.


50 Alexander Motyl and Bohdan Krawchenko. "Ukraine: From Empire to Statehood", in Ian Bremmer and Ray Taras, eds., "New States, New Politics. Building the Post-Soviet Nation". Cambridge University Press. Cambridge: 1997, p. 268.
51 Alexander Motyl and Bohdan Krawchenko. "Ukraine: From Empire to Statehood", in Ian Bremmer and Ray Taras, eds., "New States, New Politics. Building the Post-Soviet Nation". Cambridge University Press. Cambridge: 1997, p. 251.
52 Alexander Motyl and Bohdan Krawchenko. "Ukraine: From Empire to Statehood", in Ian Bremmer and Ray Taras, eds., "New States, New Politics. Building the Post-Soviet Nation". Cambridge University Press. Cambridge: 1997, p. 269.


53 Zenovia A. Sochor. "Political Culture and Foreign Policy. Elections in Ukraine 1994", in Vladimir Tismaneanu, ed., "Political Culture and Civil Society in Russia and the New States of Eurasia". M.E. Sharpe Publishers. London: 1997, p. 210.


54 M. Steven Fish. "Democracy From Scratch. Opposition and Regime in the New Russian Revolution". Princeton University Press. Princeton: 1995, pp. 218-19
55 M. Steven Fish. "The Determinants of Economic Reform in the Postcommunist World", pg. ?


56 Ilya Prizel. "Ukraine Between Proto-Democracy and 'Soft' Authoritarianism", in " Democratic Changes and Authoritarian Reactions in Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and Moldavia". Dawisha and Parrot, eds. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge: 1997, p. 345.
57 Prizel, p. 344.
58 Ilya Prizel. "Ukraine Between Proto-Democracy and 'Soft' Authoritarianism, in " Democratic Changes and Authoritarian Reactions in Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and Moldova". Dawisha and Parrot, eds. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge: 1997, p. 345.
59 John Higely, Judith Kulberg & Jan Pakulski. "The Persistence of Postcommunist Elites". Journal of Democracy. Jan 96, Vol. 7, no. 1, p. 143.
60 Daniel Kaufmann. "The Missing Pillar of a Growth Strategy for Ukraine: Reforms for Private Sector Development". In Peter K. Cornelius et al., "Ukraine: Accelerating the Transition to Market". International Monetary Fund, 1997, p. 237.


61 Grzegorz Ekiert. "Do Legacies Matter? Patterns of Post-Communist Transitions in Eastern Europe". Working draft.
62 Simon Johnson, Daniel Kaufmann et al, "Regulatory Discretion and the Unofficial Economy". American Economic Review, May 1998, p. 391.
63 Lyman H. Legters, p. 195.
64 Bryan Johnson and Thomas Sheeley. Index of Economic Freedom, 1998. Heritage Foundation, pp. 35-36.
65 Simon Johnson, Daniel Kaufmann and Pablo Zoido-Lobaton. "Regulatory Discretion and the Unofficial Economy". American Economic Review. Vol. 88, no. 2, p. 388.
66 Simon Johnson, Daniel Kaufmann and Pablo Zoido-Lobaton, p. 391.


67 1997 World Development Report. World Bank, p. 103.
68 Daniel Kaufmann. "Desperately Seeking Economic Recovery". Transition. The World Bank. April 1997
69 Daniel Kaufmann. "Desperately Seeking Economic Recovery".


70 Daniel Kaufmann. "The Missing Pillar of a Growth Strategy for Ukraine: Reforms for Private Sector Development", p. 238.
71 Daniel Kaufmann. "Desperately Seeking Economic Recovery", p. 7
72 Juan Linz & Albert Stepan. "Problems of Democratic Transition & Consolidation". The Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore: 1996, p. 43
73 Juan Linz & Albert Stepan. "Problems of Democratic Transition & Consolidation". The Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore: 1996, p. 43


74 John P. Hardt and Richard Kaufmann, eds. "East-Central European Economies in Transition". Joint Economic Committee, Congress of the United States. ME Sharpe. New York, 1995, p. 487).
75 John P. Hardt and Richard Kaufmann, eds., p. 480.
76 Juan Linz & Albert Stepan. "Problems of Democratic Transition & Consolidation". The Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore: 1996, p. 298.
77 Juan Linz & Albert Stepan. "Problems of Democratic Transition & Consolidation". The Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore: 1996, p. 375.
78 John P. Hardt and Richard Kaufmann, eds., p. 483.


79 John P. Hardt and Richard Kaufmann, eds., p. 483.
80 Juan Linz & Albert Stepan. "Problems of Democratic Transition & Consolidation". The Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore: 1996, p. 297.
81 1996 World Development Report. World Bank, p. 15.


82 John P. Hardt and Richard Kaufmann, eds., p. 507.


83 Juan Linz & Albert Stepan. "Problems of Democratic Transition & Consolidation". The Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore: 1996, p. 318.


84 John P. Hardt and Richard Kaufmann, eds., p. 513.


85 Lyman H. Legters. "Eastern Europe. Transformation and Revolution, 1945-1991", p. 195.
86 Lyman H. Legters, p. 195.
87 Lyman H. Legters, p. 195.
88 Bartlomiej Kaminski. "The Legacy of Communism" in John P. Hardt and Richard Kaufmann, eds. In "East-Central European Economies in Transition". Joint Economic Committee, Congress of the United States. ME Sharpe. New York, 1995, pp. 11-13
89 Orest Subtelny. "Ukraine: A History". 2nd ed. University of Toronto Press. Toronto, p. 402.
90 Orest Subtelny. "Ukraine: A History". 2nd ed, p. 405.
91 Raphael Shen. "Ukraine's Economic Reform: Obstacles, Errors, Lessons". Praeger Publishers. Westport. 1996, p. 26.
92 Raphael Shen. "Ukraine's Economic Reform: Obstacles, Errors, Lessons", p. 21-22.
93 Borys Lewytzkj. "Politics and Society in Soviet Ukraine". Canadian Institute for Ukrainian Studies. University of Alberta Printing Services. Edmonton. 1984, pp. 72-76.
94 Borys Lewytzkj. "Politics and Society in Soviet Ukraine", pp. 78-79.
95 Borys Lewytzkj. "Politics and Society in Soviet Ukraine", p. 95.
96 Paul Magosci. "A History of Ukraine". University of Toronto Press. Toronto, 1996, p. 668.
97 Anna Klimina "Western Influence on the Formation of Ukraine's Economic System". The Ukrainian Quarterly, Vol. LII, no. 1, Spring 1996
98 Ilya Prizel. "Ukraine Between Proto-Democracy and 'Soft' Authoritarianism", p. 346.
99 Ilya Prizel. "Ukraine Between Proto-Democracy and 'Soft' Authoritarianism", p. 345.
100 Anders Aslund. "Eurasia Letter: Ukraine's Turnaround". Foreign Policy. Fall 1995, pp. 128-129.
101 Anders Aslund. "Eurasia Letter: Ukraine's Turnaround", p. 134.
102 Volodymyr Zviglyanich. "The State and Economic Reform in Ukraine: Ideas, Models, Solutions". The Ukrainian Quarterly, vol. LII, no. 2-3, Summer-Fall 1996, p. 138.
103 Volodymyr Zviglyanich. "The State and Economic Reform in Ukraine: Ideas, Models, Solutions", pp. 138-139.
104 Volodymyr Zviglyanich. "The State and Economic Reform in Ukraine: Ideas, Models, Solutions", p. 129.
105 European Commission. "European Economy. Supplement C. Economic Reform Monitor. Economic Situation and Economic Reform in Central and Eastern Europe". May 22, 1997.
106 European Commission. "European Economy. Supplement C. Economic Reform Monitor. Economic Situation and Economic Reform in Central and Eastern Europe". September 22, 1997.
107 European Commission. "European Economy. Supplement C. Economic Reform Monitor. Economic Situation and Economic Reform in Central and Eastern Europe". September 22, 1997.


108 Val Bunce. "The Place of Place in Transitions to Democracy", p. 16. Working Draft.
109 Val Bunce. "The Place of Place in Transitions to Democracy", p. 16 Working Draft.
110 Grzegorz Ekiert. "Do Legacies Matter? Patterns of Postcommunist Transitions in Eastern Europe. Working draft, p. 20
111 Giovanni Sartori. "Neither Presidentialism or Parliamentarism", in Juan J. Linz & Arturo Valenzuela, eds., "The Failure of Presidential Democracy. Comparative Perspectives". Vol. 1. The Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore: 1994, p. 106.
112 Alfred Stepan and Cindy Skach. " Presidentialism and Parliamentarism in Comparative Perspective", in Juan J. Linz & Arturo Valenzuela, eds., "The Failure of Presidential Democracy. Comparative Perspectives". Vol. 1. The Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore: 1994, p. 120.
113 Arend Lijphart. " Presidentialism and Majoritarian Democracy", in " Presidentialism and Parliamentarism in Comparative Perspective", in Juan J. Linz & Arturo Valenzuela, eds., "The Failure of Presidential Democracy. Comparative Perspectives". Vol. 1. The Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore: 1994, p. 100.


114 Maurice Duverger. "A New Political System Model: Semi-Presidential Government", in Arend Lijphart, ed., "Parliamentary Versus Presidential Government". Oxford University Press. London: 1992, p. 142.
115 Juan Linz & Albert Stepan. "Problems of Democratic Transition & Consolidation". The Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore: 1996, p. 399
116 See M. Steven Fish. "The Determinants of Economic Reform in the Post-communist World", p. 45; Ekiert, "Do Legacies Matter? Patterns of Postcommunist Transitions in Eastern Europe. Working draft, table 5.
117 M. Steven Fish. "The Determinants of Economic Reform in the Postcommunist World", p. 55.
118 Grzegorz Ekiert. "Do Legacies Matter? Patterns of Postcommunist Transitions in Eastern Europe. Working draft, p. 21
119 Stephen Holmes. "When Less State Means Less Freedom". Transitions. September 1997.
120 Stephen Holmes. "When Less State Means Less Freedom". Transitions. September 1997.
121 Alex Sundakov. "Machinery of Government & Economic Policy in Ukraine", in Peter K. Cornelius and Patrick Lenain, eds., in "Ukraine. Accelerating the Transition to Market". International Monetary Fund. 1997, p. 278.
122 Alex Sundakov. "Machinery of Government & Economic Policy in Ukraine", p. 281.
123 Alex Sundakov. "Machinery of Government & Economic Policy in Ukraine", p. 280.
124 Alex Sundakov. "Machinery of Government & Economic Policy in Ukraine", p. 281.
125 Alex Sundakov. "Machinery of Government & Economic Policy in Ukraine", p. 280.
126 Alex Sundakov. "Machinery of Government & Economic Policy in Ukraine",
127 Anders Aslund. "Organized Crime is an Enduring Soviet Legacy". Transition. March 8, 1996, p. 11.


128 Anders Aslund. "Reform vs. Rent-Seeking in Russia's Economic Transformation". Transition. January 26, 1996, p. 13.
129 Volodymyr Polokhalo, ed. "The Political Analysis of Post-communism. Understanding Postcommunist Ukraine", p. 171
130 Val Bunce. "The Struggle for Liberal Democracy in Eastern Europe". World Policy Journal. Volume 7, Summer 1990, p. 399.
131 Val Bunce. "The Struggle for Liberal Democracy in Eastern Europe", p. 399-400.
132 Ali Farazmand. "Professionalism, Bureaucracy, and Modern Governance: A Comparative Analysis", in "Ali Farazmand, ed., "Modern Systems of Government. Exploring the Role of Bureaucrats and Politicians". Sage Publications. London: p. 55.
133 Michael S. de Vries. "Democracy and the Neutrality of Public Bureaucracy", in Haile K. Asmerom et al, "Democratization and Bureaucratic Neutrality". Macmillan Press, Ltd. London: 1996, p. 84.
134 Sally Coleman Selden. "The Promise of Representative Bureaucracy. Diversity and Responsiveness in a Government Agency". M.E. Sharpe Publishers. London, p. 14.
135 Sally Coleman Selden. "The Promise of Representative Bureaucracy. Diversity and Responsiveness in a Government Agency", pp. 13-14.
136 Michael S. de Vries. "Democracy and the Neutrality of Public Bureaucracy", pp. 84-85.
137 Michael S. de Vries. "Democracy and the Neutrality of Public Bureaucracy", p. 85.
138 Val Bunce & Maria Csanadi. "Uncertainty in the Transition: Post-Communism in Hungary", p. 243
139 Juan Linz & Albert Stepan. "Problems of Democratic Transition & Consolidation", p. 69
140 Juan Linz & Albert Stepan. "Problems of Democratic Transition & Consolidation", p. 6.
141 Uri Ra'anan et al, eds. "Inside the Apparat. Perspectives on the Soviet System from Former Functionaries", p. 47.
142 Uri Ra'anan et al, eds. "Inside the Apparat. Perspectives on the Soviet System from Former Functionaries", p. 50.
143 Uri Ra'anan et al, eds. "Inside the Apparat. Perspectives on the Soviet System from Former Functionaries", pp. 53-54.
144 Uri Ra'anan et al, eds. "Inside the Apparat. Perspectives on the Soviet System from Former Functionaries", p. 51.
145 Gordon M. Hahn. "The First Reorganization of the CPSU Central Committee Apparat Under Perestroika", p. 281.
146 Barbara Jancar. "Bureaucracy, Reform and Continuity in the USSR", in Jaroslaw Piekalkiewic et al "Public Bureaucracies Between Reform and Resistance". Berg Publishers Inc. 1991, p. 817
147 Gordon M. Hahn. "The First Reorganization of the CPSU Central Committee Apparat Under Perestroika", pp. 288-298.
148 Current Digest of the Post-Soviet Press. Vol. XLIV, no. 34, p. 4.
149 Current Digest of the Post-Soviet Press. Vol. XLIV, no. 34, p. 5.
150 Current Digest of the Post-Soviet Press. Vol. XLIV, no. 34, p. 5.
151 Uri Ra'anan et al, eds. "Inside the Apparat. Perspectives on the Soviet System from Former Functionaries", p. 53.
152 The World Bank. 1997 World Development Report. "The State in a Changing World", p. 85.
153 Kiev Post, July 17, p. 3)
154 Personal conversation with Serhiy Holovaty, November 21, 1997.
155 Kiev Post, July
156 Kiev Post. August 28, 1997.
157 Personal conversation with Serhiy Holovaty, November 21, 1997.
158 Personal conversation with Serhiy Holovaty, November 21, 1997.
158 1997 World Development Report. World Bank, p. 85.
160 Kyiv Post, May 8, 1997.
161 Although not discussed extensively in this paper, effective 1998, half of the Ukrainian MP's will be elected through party lists, making it impossible for the public to remove deputies it does not trust.