Kotliarevs'kyi: The Beginning of the Ukrainian Vernacular

Historical Summary

22. Ivan Kotliarevs'kyi (1769-1838)
(The Aeneid)
St. Petersburg: M. Parpura, 1798.

Kotliarevs'kyi's travesty of Virgil's Aeneid follows in the tradition of existing 17th and 18th century parodies of the epic, including those by Paul Scarron, Aloys Blumauer, and Nikolai Osipov and Aleksandr Kotel'nitskii. The innovative aspect of the work lies in its use of the Ukrainian vernacular, a new verse form, and careful attention to ethnographic detail.

Bayard L. Kilgour, Jr. Fund, December 1971.

23. Ivan Kotliarevs'kyi (1769-1838)
Virgilieva Eneida
(Virgil's Aeneid)
Kharkiv, 1842.

Publication of the work's first three parts in St. Petersburg in 1798 was funded by M. Parpura, but appeared without the author's consent. In subsequent parts of the book Kotliarevs'kyi, angry at the publisher, included him in the scene of hell. Part four appeared in 1809. Parts five and six appeared around 1820, but the first full edition of the work (with a glossary) was published only after his death, in Kharkiv in 1842.

Gift of Omeljan Pritsak, February 1971.

24. Ievhen Hrebinka, ed. (1812-1848)
(The Swallow)
St. Petersburg, 1841.

Hrebinka compiled this rare almanac that contains works by Hryhorii Kvitka-Osnov'ianenko, Panteleimon Kulish, and others. The almanac includes Taras Shevchenko's poem “Na vichnu pamiat' Kotliarevs'komu” (To the Eternal Memory of Ivan Kotliarevs'kyi). In his poem, Shevchenko compares Kotliarevs'kyi to a nightingale. He reveals the powerful role that the poet plays in the spiritual and national life of the Ukrainian people.

Bayard L. Kilgour, Jr. Fund and the Ukrainian Studies Fund, June 1973.

25. Ivan Kotliarevs'kyi (1769-1838)
St. Petersburg, 1862.

Shevchenko's illustration of Kotliarevs'kyi's home in Poltava. Kotliarevs'kyi (1769-1838) also wrote the plays Natalka Poltavka (Natalka from Poltava) and Moskal'-Charivnyk (The Muscovite-Sorcerer) which were both written for and performed at the Poltava Theater under his artistic directorship.

Gift from the Library of Bohdan and Neonila Krawciw, November 1979.

26. Taras Shevchenko (1814-1861)
(The Minstrel)
St. Petersburg: E. Fisher, 1840.

In 1840, Shevchenko, the national bard of Ukraine, published his first collection of poems.

Bayard L. Kilgour, Jr. Fund, September 1968.

27. Iakiv Kukharenko (1799-1862)
Prague, 1928.

Eneida inspired a number of imitations including Kukharenko's “Khar'ko Zaporozhs'kyi Koshovyi” (Kharko, A Zaporozhian Chief), a mock-heroic poem that imitates Kotliarevs'kyi's plot.

Courtesy of Widener Library.

28. Literaturno-naukovyi vistnyk
(Literary Scientific Herald)
L'viv, 1898.

This journal was founded in 1898 on the initiative of Mykhailo Hrushevs'kyi together with Ivan Franko and Volodymyr Hnatiuk. Published in L'viv (1898-1906, 1922-32) and in Kyiv (1907-14, 1917-19), it became an important medium for Ukrainian literature and political discussion. This issue marks the 100 year anniversary of Kotliarevs'kyi's Eneida.

Courtesy of Widener Library.