Late Nineteenth- and Early Twentieth-Century Historiography

Historical Summary

41. Mykhailo Drahomanov (1841-1895)
La littérature oukrainienne proscrite par le gouvernement russe: rapport présenté au Congrès littéraire de Paris
(Ukrainian Literature Banned by the Russian Government: Report Presented at the Literary Congress in Paris)
Geneva: Georg, 1878.

This pamphlet was prepared and printed by Drahomanov as a response to the recent Ems Ukaz issued by tsar Alexander II which banned the publication of texts in Ukrainian within the Russian Empire. It was distributed at the International Literary Congress in Paris, 1878, chaired by Victor Hugo and Ivan Turgenev.

Charles Minot Fund, 1972. Courtesy of Widener Library.

42. Mykhailo Hrushevs'kyi (1866-1934)
Istoriia Ukrainy-Rusy
(History of Ukraine-Rus')
L'viv, 1904 (second edition).

Hrushevs'kyi (1866-1934) published the first volume of his monumental Istoriia Ukrainy-Rusy in 1898. By 1937 another nine volumes had appeared in L'viv and Kyiv. In his historical work, Hrushevs'kyi outlined the ethnogenesis of the Ukrainian nation and established the continuity of Ukrainian historical processes, even during periods of Ukrainian statelessness. The first volume begins with an account of the first Slavic settlement on the East European Plain during the great migration of peoples, continues through the establishment of the Rus' state centered in Kyiv, and culminates in the adoption of Christianity toward the end of the tenth century.

Gift of the Ukrainian Research Institute, 1978. Courtesy of Widener Library.

43. Mykhailo Drahomanov (1841-1895)
Opyt ukrains'koi politiko-sotsial'noi programmy
(Examination of the Ukrainian Politico-social Program)
Geneva, 1884.

This Russian language publication argues for a federalization of the Russian state, which, according to Drahomanov, would guarantee the national freedom of Ukraine. It was issued after the journal Hromada ceased to be published.

Sabbagh-Kilgour-Belles-Lettres Fund, October 1983.

44. Hromada
Geneva: Georg, 1879-82.

Hromada was Drahomanov's effort to create a vehicle for discourse of the Ukrainian cause. It began publication in Geneva in 1878. In its first issue, Drahomanov sketched the history of the Ukrainian national movement and enumerated a number of its political and social goals. In order to convey his thought through print, Drahomanov created a style of Ukrainian journalistic prose and coined numerous political terms in Ukrainian. The script of the text also shows Drahomanov's attempt to simplify and standardize Ukrainian orthography by creating a system in which each phoneme was represented by a single grapheme.

Duplicate Fund, 1940. Courtesy of Widener Library.

45. Elisée Reclus (1830-1905)<BR> Nouvelle géographie universelle: la terre et les hommes<BR> (New Universal Geography: Earth and Its Inhabitants)<BR> Paris: Hachette, 1880.<BR> </P> <P> This work highlights Drahomanov's efforts to raise international awareness of Ukraine through print. Reclus was the editor of a series that would form a comprehensive geography of the world. He and Drahomanov were involved in anarchist circles in Geneva. Though Reclus is formally the editor of this volume, Drahomanov wrote the parts that deal with the Russian empire. Drahomanov makes the case for a Ukrainian nation, distinct from both Polish and Russian nationalities. It is with this map that we find one of the earliest maps of what constitutes Ukrainian national territory based on the principle of ethnography. </P> <P> Received 1883. Courtesy of the Andover-Harvard Theological Library. </P> <HR ALIGN=CENTER SIZE="7"> <p> <div align=center> <a href="late19_46.html" TARGET=_top><IMG SRC="images/late19_46tn.jpg" HSPACE="10" VSPACE="10"></a> </div> <P> 46. Stepan Rudnyts'kyi (1877-1937)<BR> Ukraina und die Ukrainer<BR> (Ukraine and the Ukrainians)<BR> Vienna: Verlag des Allgemeinen Ukrainischen Nationalrates, 1914.<BR> </P> <P> Rudnyts'kyi was a lecturer in geography at the University of Lemberg (L'viv). In his works, he described the Ukrainian nation, its character, and its territory. In particular, he highlights that Crimea is part of the Ukrainian national territory. It is in this fact that his map differs from Drahomanov's map. In mapping Ukrainian territory, Rudnyts'kyi used data from the 1897 Russian Imperial census. In the results, Ukrainian (Little Russian) speakers form a majority of the population in northern Crimea, and a large proportion in the south. </P> <P> Old Gift. Courtesy of Widener Library. </P> <HR ALIGN=CENTER SIZE="7"> <P> 47. Ivan Franko, ed. (1856-1916)<BR> Materiialy kul'turnoi istorii halyts'koi Rusy XVIII i XIX viku<BR> (Materials on the Cultural History of Galician Ruthenia in the 18th and 19th Centuries)<BR> L'viv: Shevchenko Scientific Society, 1902.<BR> </P> <P> Franko (1856-1916) contributed to many areas of Ukrainian culture as a poet, prose writer, playwright, critic, journalist, literary historian, translator, and publisher. From 1898 to 1913 he served as chairman of the Ethnographic Commission of the Shevchenko Scientific Society. His work in the field of ethnography and folklore included studies and articles about the clothing, food, art, and beliefs of the Galician people. </P> <P> Ukrainian Fund, 1971. Courtesy of Widener Library. </P> </BODY> </HTML>